One of the most common ways for people to become permanent residents in the US is through employment-based immigration.
Employment-Based Immigration: First Preference, often referred to as EB-1, is available to managers and executives who are multilingual, outstanding researchers or professors and to those who have demonstrated an extraordinary ability in any one of a number of fields. All three of these types of prospective immigrants will need to file a Form I-140, Petition for Alien Worker, in addition to a number of other provisions.
Those who have demonstrated an extraordinary ability in business, science, art, athletics or education may be eligible for an EB-1 visa. One must prove their extraordinary ability by providing documentation showing that they have published materials, earned awards or been commercially successful, among other things. People in this class do not need an employment offer in the US.
Outstanding researchers and professors must also prove their ability by providing documentation showing prizes, published material or original research, among other criteria. For these potential EB-1 visa holders, they must enter the US with the intention of pursuing a career in an institution of higher education.
As with the other two, multilingual managers must provide documentation of their extraordinary ability. In addition, they must have worked for their company for at least one year and plan to continue working for that firm upon entry to the US.